Global Study on the Status of and Opportunities for Reparations for Survivors of Conflict-related Sexual Violence in Nigeria

Duration: July 2023 – April 2024 Funder: Global Survivors Fund

The Nigeria Reparation Study, funded by the Global Survivors Fund (GSF), is a comprehensive investigation into the current status and opportunities for reparations for survivors of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) in Nigeria. The study aims to shed light on the experiences of survivors and make valuable contributions to the development of effective reparations programs and initiatives. The project will be implemented by the dRPC in collaboration with Explore Humanitarian Aid Initiative (ExploreAid) and Grassroot Researchers Association (GRA) over a period of 10 months, from July 2023 to April 2024.

The broader objectives of Nigeria Reparations Study are:

  1. Increased understanding and awareness of the right to reparation of CRSV survivors, including by survivors themselves. The sub-objectives are:
    1. Create awareness amongst the Survivors on the basic principles and guidelines of right to reparation and existing programmes and initiatives on reparations;
    2. Analyse the conflict context and espouse the place and use of sexual violence as a tool of war, and ideological propaganda tool;
    3. Document and share widely the survivors perspective on the efficacy of existing reparation programmes and initiatives in addressing the survivors needs.
  2. Increased insights on CRSV survivors’ needs, perceptions and expectations with regard to individual and collective reparations and ‘interim reparative measures; using processes scheduled to be conducted in a participatory and survivor-centric manner. The sub-objectives are:
    1. Document the CRSV survivors’ needs, perceptions and expectations with regard to individual and collective reparations and ‘interim reparative measures.
    2. Investigate the engagement level of survivors in designing and implementing reparation programmes in Nigeria and how participatory and survivor-centric reparation programmes and initiatives in Nigeria are or have been.
  • Increased foundations and momentum, for the delivery of survivor-centric reparations for CRSV survivors:
  1. Advocate to duty bearers on the need to address gaps in implementing reparation programs in Nigeria and ensure that the programmes are participatory and survivor-centric.
  2. Use the results of the reparation study to engage the reparation stakeholders at national and state levels on the need to accelerate the delivery of survivor-centric reparations for CRSV survivors.

The Nigeria Reparation Study will be implemented in three phases – the pre-implementation, the Implementation, and the action phases.

Pre-implementation Phase: In this phase, activities include:

  1. Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Signing: The dRPC will develop MoUs for two grassroots organizations, Explore Humanitarian Aid Initiative (ExploreAid) and Grassroot Researchers Association (GRA), supporting the study.
  2. Planning Meetings: Coordination and planning meetings for research activities involving the dRPC, its partners, or joint efforts will be conducted, with the dRPC responsible for convening and chairing these meetings.
  3. Stakeholder Mapping: Comprehensive mapping of stakeholders targeted as respondents, leading to a stakeholder analysis meeting with Explore Aid and GRA. This aims to prioritize stakeholders/actors for interviews.
  4. Review and Adoption of Data Collection Tools: Adapting and customizing pre-designed tools from GSF to align with research questions. These questions focus on various aspects, including challenges faced by the Nigerian government in implementing the legal framework on reparations, the historical context of Boko Haram’s conflict-related sexual violence, avenues for reparations, and survivor perceptions. The adopted tools will undergo pre-testing on survivor network leaders and validation by the research team led by the dRPC to ensure reliability and effectiveness. The research questions cover a range of topics, from legal frameworks and mechanisms to challenges, risks, and recommendations.
  5. Ethical Clearance: Preparation of research protocols, informed consent forms, and related documents by the dRPC, with support from Explore Aid, for submission to ethical review committees at the state and national levels.

Implementation Phase: This phase involves participatory engagement with survivors. The key activities that will be conducted during this phase include:

  1. Orientation of Data Collectors: Ten data collectors will undergo training on data collection methods, procedures, accuracy, consistency, quality, and adherence to ethical and legal guidelines.
  2. Identification and Selection of Survivors: dRPC, Explore Aid, GRA, and the Survivor Network will collaboratively identify and select survivors based on criteria such as age, willingness to participate, and diversity.
  3. Data Collection: Trained data collectors will conduct semi-structured interviews with survivors and stakeholders. Trauma-counselling support will be provided during and after data collection, ensuring confidentiality.
  4. Capacity-building Training: Survivors will receive practical capacity-building training on trauma care to support each other.
  5. Partnership and Involvement: The study is a collaboration between dRPC, ExploreAid, GRA, and the Survivor Network. dRPC leads the implementation, supported by Explore Aid and GRA. Survivors, including the leadership, will participate in logistics and some as respondents during the study.
  6. Analysis and Drafting Phase: After conducting interviews with survivors and stakeholders, the qualitative data will undergo compilation, transcription, translation, and logical organization. Quantitative data will be entered into Microsoft Excel for accuracy and then imported into SPSS version 22.0 for further analysis. The data will be coded, categorized, and sorted, with quantitative results presented through descriptive statistics. The dRPC’s data analyst, supported by the research team, will lead the data analysis. Once completed, the dRPC will develop the initial draft of the Nigeria Reparation Study Report, involving drafting, writing, reviewing, and proofreading stages to ensure accuracy and completeness. The report will present findings in a clear and concise manner, emphasizing key insights.

The drafting process will prioritize accessibility and clarity for a wide audience. After the initial draft, a comprehensive review will be undertaken to address errors or inconsistencies. Following proofreading, the report will undergo a feedback process involving Explore Aid, GRA, survivors, and selected stakeholders.
Action Phase: The action phase will involve evidence-based advocacy to stakeholders to inform policy and decision-making in addressing problems identified by the Nigeria Reparation Study.
The dRPC will leverage the launching and dissemination of the final Nigeria Reparation study to support the survivors in advocating for the need to address gaps identified by the research, fast-track the implementation of existing reparation programmes, and strengthen mechanisms to ensure judicious utilization of resources meant for survivors’ reparation.
The key stakeholders that will be targeted for the launch include the members of the National Assembly, officials from the Federal Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management; Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development; Federal Ministry of Justice, Federal Ministry of Finance, Budget and National Planning; Northeast Development Commission (NEDC), Borno State Agency for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and development partners.

Study Methodologies
The study will utilize a mixed-methods approach, combining both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. To gather data from survivors of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV), both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods will be employed during interviews. The research process will begin with an exploratory qualitative method, followed by a confirmatory qualitative method. The quantitative method will be employed to collect accurate and reliable numerical data that would enable the project team to systematically analyze the number of survivors of CRSV, the number of past and ongoing reparation programmes, the number of beneficiaries of the reparation programme, etc. The data collected will be subjected to statistical analysis to determine the number of beneficiaries, demographic characteristics, and other relevant information.
Using a quantitative approach will also enable the team to identify trends, patterns, and relationships among variables related to the reparation programme beneficiaries. This method will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the scope and impact of the reparation programme, establish the effectiveness of the programme, and highlight any areas that require improvement.
The Global Study on Reparations for Survivors of Conflict-related Sexual Violence in Nigeria aims to contribute to the development of survivor-centric reparations programmes. By understanding survivors’ needs, perceptions, and expectations, and engaging key stakeholders, the study aims to facilitate meaningful change and advocate for the rights of survivors in Nigeria.